In the 16th century a lot of travelling was done. Save the pilgrims, the number of travelers was higher than ever. Tradesmen, students, ‘tourists’ and other adventurers went from one place to the other in steadily increasing numbers. Cities were most visited, at the time the centres of trade and social life. The interest in cities was at least as great as the interest in countries and regions. Therefore it is no surprise that – two years after the publication of the first modern world atlas in 1570, the Theatrum orbis terrarum by Abraham Ortelius – a book came on the market that tried to describe and depict every city in the world: the Civitates orbis terarrum.